Dig Into Soil

Today’s guest blog post is provided by Joshua Harms, part of the Iowa AmeriCorps 4-H Outreach program, serving with Water Rocks! in 2018-19.

As a continuation of my monthly blog series highlighting our educational approaches working with youth, today I will be explaining our “Dig Into Soil” module which we present in classrooms with Water Rocks!. We start off our soil module with a trivia question as we always do. Next we explain the definition of natural resources and then ask students for some examples. Then we let the students know that Iowa has some of the best soil in the entire world.

Our next step in this module is to define soil – how is it different from dirt? Soil is alive! It supports us here on earth and we could not live here without it. Next we show the students a poster with pictures of different items to help them guess the different ways soil is used, including food, clothing, habitat, and filter (filtering our water).

Now that we have explained some of the very important things soil does, we move on to see how soil is formed. We go old school for this part, using a felt board to help show the different layers of soil. This includes bedrock, subsoil, top soil, many different species that live in the top soil, and many different things that grow out of the soil.

We continue by explaining that soil is endangered here in Iowa because it takes the earth 500-1,000 years to form 1 inch, but we are losing that inch in 20 years. The reason we are losing soil so fast is because of erosion, the process of soil being moved by wind and water.  Soil is most valuable in place, in our fields and gardens – it becomes a problem when it makes it to the water.

There are a few very important things that should be done to protect the soil. Keeping the soil covered is key, which can be done through mulching, planting trees and grasses, plus farmers can do no-till and cover crops.

Next we transition into a game that shows how important soil is, considering that nearly everything that we use comes from the soil. The game is called Six Degrees of Soil. In this game, we give the students an item and they have to work together in teams to figure out how to get from soil to said item in no more than six steps. An example that always makes students laugh is underwear. One would start with soil, next plant some cotton, then pick the cotton, then process that into thread, and lastly send it to a factory so they can sew it into underwear.

The last important topic we cover related to soil is decomposition. This process takes place when the different organisms break things back down into soil.  We explain that certain items get broken down quicker than others. To help the students understand this topic even better, we play another game. In the decomposition game, we give the students 5 different items and they must put these items in order from fastest to slowest in terms of decomposing.

We wrap up by asking the students for ways we can help protect the soil and protect the larger environment around us. Common conversation points include planting grasses and trees, no-till farming, reusable water bottles, taking your own bags to the grocery store, setting up a compost pile, organizing a trash pick-up day, etc. Finally we finish with the same trivia question that we asked at the beginning of our presentation.

Joshua Harms