It’s a Matter of Trust

Mark Rasmussen | Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture Director

In recent times we have experienced a significant erosion of trust in our society. Intentional obfuscation, half truths and outright lies seem to be an everyday occurrence now. Such deception and dishonestly takes a toll on everyone, from personal interactions to national and international affairs.

Trust and honestly is especially important with respect to our state and federal regulatory agencies. We rely on these organizations to evaluate and approve drugs, medical treatments and chemicals based upon science and a thorough process of due diligence. But when a whiff of politics or influence enters that decision-making process, decades of trust can evaporate very quickly. When trust is lost, lawsuits usually follow.

This is especially relevant in the business of food and agriculture because food is a universal exposure (everyone eats) and because agriculture has such a huge footprint on the landscape. Regulatory decisions regarding food and environmental safety are important not just for humans but also for the rest of the biological world, on field and off.

I have been thinking a lot about what causes the loss of a species. We have all heard news about honey-bee Colony Collapse, and many wait anxiously for annual Monarch butterfly migration numbers. Many explanations try to deflect responsibility by citing a complicated list of factors such as disease, parasites, reproduction, habitat, critical co-species, over-harvesting and social inertia. Unfortunately, other than a few celebrity species in the “going, going, gone” book of life, many don’t get much attention as they quietly fade away.

While many factors have an impact on biodiversity, extinction or survival, I want to focus on one factor that does not get adequate consideration. This involves a complex mix of toxicology, multi-chemical interactions, sub lethal dosages, and off-target environmental consequences. This is where trust in our regulatory agencies is vital. Their decisions are important because the products we use, the medicines we take, and the chemicals we apply ultimately end up in our soil, water, and air. These represent an extensive array of drugs, hormones, cleaners, pesticides and personal care products.

Things get complicated quickly when chemical mixtures are involved. Scientists that work in this area are faced with a complex array of interacting ingredients, many possessing residual biological activity that lingers long after use.

Most undergo regulatory approval as pure compounds, and some information is available on their environmental impacts but often a lot of information is restricted and filed away in confidential regulatory application files. I get very frustrated when I seek out such information and find it is cloaked as confidential.

Only later do we find that someone has identified unanticipated deleterious consequences from use of a chemical that has put some species at risk. Maybe our own. Such surprises happen more frequently than they should. We need our regulatory experts to make evaluations using the best available science free from undue influence. It’s a matter of trust.

If you feel frustrated, I share your frustration. For some, this complicated research process may be cause for despair and surrender to the idea that we can never figure this out, so why try. For others it means; “Forge ahead. We need this product now and we will just assume nature will take care of it.” Others react with a resolute: “Stop now! Ban it”.

None of these positions are particularly helpful. More than ever, we need to be thorough and deliberative in our decisions. We need to double-down on research and knowledge-formation. We need more scientists and more open research on the environmental aspects of multi-chemical interactions. We also need more support for scientists doing this work.

We need the relevant industrial partner to provide metabolic, toxicological and degradation data before a product is released into the environment so there are no surprises. We also need to maintain a little humility. The chemistry of life is vastly complicated. And finally, we need a regulatory system that is not harassed into ignoring science and making inappropriate or premature decisions as a result of political pressure.

Life on earth and our own well-being depends on getting good, timely answers to these complicated questions. The clock is ticking.

Mark Rasmussen, Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture Director

Measuring Conservation and Nutrient Reduction in Iowa

Written by: Laurie Nowatzke and Jamie Benning

To address Iowa’s nutrient contributions to the Gulf hypoxic zone, the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy (INRS) established goals for reducing N and P loss from agricultural nonpoint sources by 41% and 29%, respectively. The INRS Science Assessment identified a number of conservation practices that reduce N and P loss including in-field fertilizer and soil management practices, edge-of-field nitrate and phosphorus reduction structures, and strategic conversion of row crop acres to pasture, small grains, or perennial crops.

The current status of conservation in Iowa

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy Annual Report is published each year to document the change in statewide education and outreach efforts, practice implementation and changes in water quality.  Some of the highlights of this report include:

  • Cover crops planted in Iowa increased from 379,000 acres in fall 2011 to 973,000 in fall 2016, according to the newly available 2017 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Census of Agriculture.
  • Based on the USDA Census of Agriculture, annual corn and soybean planted acres have remained relatively consistent since the 1980s, with some fluctuation. Preliminary analyses of the USDA Cropland Data Layer suggest that perennial agricultural acres – including pasture, hay, and acres enrolled in CRP – have decreased over time, with approximately 4.3 million acres in 2018.
  • No-till acreage increased from 6.9 million acres in 2012 to 8.2 million in 2017, according to the Census of Agriculture.
  • By the end of the 2018 calendar year, there were an estimated 27 bioreactors and 13 saturated buffers installed through cost-share programs, treating an estimated 2,000 acres or more.
  • Iowa has 86 nitrate-removal (i.e., CREP) wetlands that treat 107,000 acres. An additional 30 wetlands are currently under development for completion in the coming years.
  • Since 2011, approximately 22.5 million feet of terraces have been constructed using state cost-share funds. These terraces treated 174,000 acres of land and reduced P losses by 40 tons in 2018.

Moving forward

Meeting the goals of the INRS will require changes on every acre of Iowa farmland. One example scenario calls for an estimated 10.5 million acres of no-till and strip-till, 12.5 million acres of cover crops, 7,600 nutrient removal wetlands, and 120,000 bioreactors and saturated buffers. In comparing these numbers to the 2019 assessment of practices, we have a lot of work ahead us to reach the goals. Numerous resources and technical and financial assistance programs are available to assist farmers, landowners, and their advisers select, implement and manage conservation practices successfully.

Tools for getting started

With a range of conservation practice options to choose from, it can be difficult to decide which practice(s) is right for you and where to start. The Conservation Systems Best Practices Manual and decision support tools were developed with these challenges in mind to help new practice adopters and their advisers make sound decisions and have successful conservation practice implementation experiences. The manual outlines recommendations for in-field and edge-of-field practices including cover crops, no-till, strip-till, multi-year crop rotations, prairie strips, bioreactors, saturated buffers, and nutrient removal wetlands. The manual was developed using a cropping systems approach and includes planting, nutrient management, pest and disease management, and harvest tips and considerations for the in-field practices. Download the free manual from the ISU Extension Store website.

Financial incentives

To help offset the cost of getting started, the statewide cost-share program through the  Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship Water Quality Initiative Program is offering $25 per acre for first time cover crop farmers and $15 per acre for farmers who have tried cover crops in the past. First time no-till or strip-till adopters are eligible for $10 per acre and farmers using nitrapyrin nitrification inhibitor with fall fertilizer are eligible for $3 per acre. Funding is limited to a maximum of 160 acres per farmer or landowner. Applications can be submitted through your local Soil and Water Conservation District office.

For information on other conservation and water quality programs call your local USDA Service Center office.

Laurie Nowatzke (Measurement Coordinator for the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy)

Jamie Benning (Assistant Director for Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension)

Relay Intercropping has Potential in Iowa

In 2018 and 2019, research was conducted on a relay intercropping and double cropping systems to evaluate as a possible alternative to Iowa’s traditional corn-soybean or continuous corn cropping system.

There were 2 sites; one near Kalona and another near Ames, Iowa, to study these possible alternatives. The Kalona site planted cereal rye immediately after corn harvesting. Following cereal rye harvest, soybean was double cropped. In 2018, the cereal rye yield averaged 46.1 bushels per acre and the double crop soybean yield averaged 23.2 bushels per acre. In 2019, the cereal rye yield averaged 30 bushels per acre and the soybean did not reach maturity and were not harvestable. It should be noted, that in 2018 there was an earlier than normal first fall frost.

Near Ames there were 4 treatments were: (1) soybean with winter wheat as a cover crop terminated before planting, (2) winter wheat-soybean relay intercropping with fall strip-tillage after November 1, (3) winter wheat-soybean relay intercropping with no tillage, and (4) soybean double cropped after winter wheat harvest. Wheat yields averaged 57.2 and 30.1 bushels per acre in 2018 and 2019 respectively. The lower yields in 2019 are attributed to cooler, wetter spring conditions. Wheat yields in 2018 were not significantly affected by the strip-tillage treatment, however, in 2019, the wheat yields in the soybean double crop system were significantly higher than either relay intercropping system (Figure 1). Soybean yields averaged 16.3 and 33.0 bushels per acre in 2018 and 2019 respectively. Wet conditions in the fall of 2018 resulted in delayed harvest and pod shattering. In 2019, the higher soybean yield was attributed to the soybean with winter wheat system and the lowest yield was in the double crop soybean system . The fall strip-tillage with the relay intercropping system did provide a higher soybean yield than with no tillage.

In conclusion, soybean and winter wheat (and likely other small grains) can be grown in a relay intercropping or double cropping system in Iowa but with increased production risk. Double cropping soybean following a small grain is very high risk because of much lower soybean yield potential due to early to mid-July planting dates and frost potential prior to reaching physiological maturity. A relay intercropping system reduces some of the risk associated with double cropping, but has some of its own risks. These risks are associated with being able to relay plant soybean into the small grain ahead of the small grain reaching the joint stage; harvesting the small grain before the soybean grow taller than the small grain heads; implement traffic can reduce the small grain harvestable yield; and drought conditions resulting in competition for soil moisture may be limiting for either or both crops. However, it is realistic to use an alternative cropping system to reduce risk of nitrogen and phosphorus losses while potentially increasing overall productivity.

Figure 1. Soybean (yellow) and winter wheat (red) yields under four systems: soybean with winter wheat as a cover crop (S w/ Wcc); winter wheat-soybean relay intercropping with fall strip-tillage (Relay ST); winter wheat-soybean relay intercropping (Relay); and soybean double cropped after winter wheat (Sdc).

Mark Licht

The Business of Cover Crops

On Wednesday, Iowa Learning Farms hosted the first webinar in the Cover Crop Bootcamp series: “The Business of Cover Crops” with Matt Carstens, President & CEO of Landus Cooperative, and Lee Briese, Independent Crop Consultant at Centrol of Twin Valley.

Carstens discussed the progress that he’s seen in agriculture throughout his career and the changes that are taking place. He believes that cover crops are one tool in the toolbox that can help producers achieve their goals. He also stated the importance of these producers having trusted advisers who can help them understand how they can best use cover crops in their operations.

Cover crops can be thought of as a 9/16″ wrench in a producer’s toolbox

Briese then shared his experience in providing services to growers and working with local extension as an independent crop consultant. Through his outreach, Briese has seen a lot of interest from farmers, not just the “progressive” early adopters of conservation practices, but also from middle or late adopters. These middle/late adopters are also showing up to meetings, asking questions, and learning more about how conservation practices like cover crops could be used in their operations.

Briese also described covered crops as a tool in the toolbox of producers—a 9/16″ wrench. He said that cover crops can be used in every system, by every different type of farmer, but that it is essential that these farmers choose the right tool for their operation. Cover crops are tools that are needed to address issues of soil and water erosion, but that they are individual species and choosing the right species, timing and placement is important.

Of the cover crop species, Briese sees cereal rye and radishes as 9/16″ wrenches—they are easy to use and can be applied in a variety of different situations. However there are many different types of crops that can be used as cover crops and it’s important for advisers to consider the specifics of the situation and determine what tools are needed to solve issues and meet the producer’s goals.

On-farm benefits of cover crops include reducing soil and water erosion, managing areas with high salinity, and suppressing weeds. Briese believes that in the future we will see more intercropping and multiple species being planted on agricultural fields to address these concerns. He went on to share several different scenarios where cover crops were being used by his clients to effectively manage issues in their farming operations.

To learn more, watch the full webinar here.

Join us next week, on Wednesday at noon for the second webinar in the Cover Crop Bootcamp series: “Setup and Logistics for Cover Crop Success”. The presenters will be:

  • Bert Strayer (cover crop lead, La Crosse Seed)
  • James Holz (Greene County farmer and co-owner, Iowa Cover Crop)
  • Dean Sponheim (co-owner, Sponheim Seeds and Services)
  • Nate LeVan (field agronomist, Pioneer)

Topics include: Fall and spring logistics; seeding preparation and process; coordination of services – termination, nutrient management, strip-tillage, crop scouting.

Hilary Pierce

Global Experience Highlights the Importance of Iowa Agriculture

The next guest post in our Water Resources Internship blog series this summer was written by Riley Wilgenbusch. He is a senior at ISU majoring in Agronomy and Global Resource Systems and grew up in Story City, Iowa, where he spent time on his family’s hobby farm and participated in many agriculture-related activities.

Interning with Iowa Learning Farms and Water Rocks! has so far given me a diverse perspective on Iowa Agriculture to contrast my prior international work experiences and studies in Global Resource Systems. In the summer of 2019, specifically, I traveled across Europe and Africa co-authoring a research paper for the Animal Production and Health Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) before working as a public health intern studying the intersectionality between nutrition and health in the context of healthcare delivery systems in Kamuli, Uganda.

Harvesting cacao in Uganda as part of my diversified agriculture education.

This summer, however, my plans brought me back to Iowa where I’m learning about some of the world’s largest agriculture systems with a renewed perspective. I credit my sustainability research at FAO with my renewed sense of urgency in the environmental research portion of the internship. As the interns have been collecting data on monarch habitats in restored prairies, examining soil health data within industrial agriculture systems, and attending webinars and field days focused on a variety of different conservation practices in agriculture, I’m beginning to contextualize the paper I wrote last summer and see firsthand the toll agriculture can take on natural ecosystems if not carefully managed.

I specifically recall a presentation at a field day that highlighted the monocrop systems that dominate Iowa’s landscapes. This is in stark contrast to my experiences working with subsistence farming and nutrition education in Uganda. Understanding the challenges facing people living in food-insecure areas of the world, I’m hopeful to see future crop diversification in Iowa to help make progress toward eliminating food insecurity in the United States.

I also appreciate the diverse landscapes he’s learned about in Iowa this summer, too. In combination with lessons on the history of Iowa’s landscape formation, I have traveled across the state visiting different county parks as part of a project to promote individualized learning activities for youth and families in Iowa’s great outdoors. As I’ve traveled, I’ve gotten to “debunk” the myth that Iowa is all flat cropland. From the steep terrain and terrace farming of the far northeast to the smooth, rolling hills of the southwest, Iowa is full of hidden gems just waiting to be discovered. Having been around the world, I’m thrilled to learn more about the state I’ve always called home.

Working with other interns on prairie plant research related to monarch habitats in central Iowa

As the summer progresses, I’m looking forward to doing more prairie research and monarch monitoring. As pollinator habitats continue to disappear, posing major threats to crop production, the importance of this environmental research can’t be understated. While I’m looking toward a career in healthcare delivery and research, I will always carry an agricultural perspective with me. This internship with Iowa Learning Farms and Water Rocks! is a tremendous opportunity to learn hands-on and promote the importance of agriculture and sustainability to audiences across the state.

-Riley Wilgenbusch

Wetland Ecosystem Services: How wetlands can benefit Iowans.

Kay Stefanik | Assistant Director, Iowa Nutrient Research Center

              Iowa was once a mosaic of prairies, wetlands, rivers, and forests.  Today, Iowa looks drastically different as agriculture now dominates the landscape.  Fertile prairie and wetland soils, which are ideal for row crop agriculture, have paved the way to a booming agricultural industry and led to Iowa being one of the top corn and soybean producing states in the country. 

              While agriculture is vital to the regional economy, all things in life come with trade-offs.  The rise of agriculture came at the expense of nature. Of Iowa’s natural ecosystems, wetlands have been particularly hard hit.  Prior to European settlement, wetlands made up almost 4 million acres of Iowa’s landscape.  Today, there are only about 422,000 acres of wetlands remaining; this is an 89% loss in wetland habitat.   

              At this point, you may be wondering “why does wetland loss matter”?  When a wetland is lost, we do not just lose a physical space.  We also lose the wetland’s ecosystem services – the essential direct and indirect benefits that nature provides to humans.  Even though wetlands are much harder to find today, the wetlands that do exist are still providing a variety of ecosystem services.  These ecosystems services include:

  • Flood prevention
  • Water quality improvements through nutrient and sediment removal
  • Wildlife habitat
  • Recreational opportunities
  • Food and fiber

              I am in no way implying that sides need to be taken, that it is agriculture or nature.  What I am suggesting is that not only can agriculture and nature coexist, but that nature can be used to improve agriculture.  By protecting wetlands already on the landscape, as well as strategically creating and restoring wetland habitat, we can increase the impacts of wetland ecosystem services.  Of interest in Iowa are the ability of wetlands to help with flood prevention and to improve water quality. 

              Flooding has become a major issue throughout Iowa over the last decade.  Wetlands placed along streams and rivers have the potential to capture surface runoff before stormwater reaches the stream and can also act to hold water from a river that spills over its banks.  This holding capacity prevents some of that floodwater from being immediately transported downstream.  By holding floodwater in place, downstream fields and developed areas may be spared from extreme flooding events and severe economic loss. 

              In addition to flood prevention, wetlands also help to improve water quality.   Wetlands receiving surface runoff can reduce phosphorus concentrations through the settling out of soil particles in the water column. The settled-out phosphorus becomes trapped in the wetland sediment and thus held on the landscape.  Wetlands that receive water with high dissolved nitrogen concentrations, usually ground water or tile line water, can reduce nitrogen through microbial conversion to nitrogen gas.  This nitrogen gas is then lost to the atmosphere, which is already about 78% nitrogen.  The ability of wetlands to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus can help us meet the 45% nutrient reduction goal laid out in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy.

              These wetland ecosystem services – flood prevention, water quality improvement, wildlife habitat, recreational opportunities, food, and fiber – give wetlands both instrumental and intrinsic value.  Wetlands have great potential to benefit the lives of all Iowans, but only if wetlands are allowed to exist in Iowa’s landscape.

Kay Stefanik

@kay_stefanik (Twitter)

Multi-Cropping as a Profitable Soil Health Solution

Iowa Learning Farms hosted a webinar on Wednesday about multi-cropping, and the soil health, environmental, and economic benefits of this practice.

Multi-cropping, which means more than one crop is harvested from the same field in the same year, can be done in several different ways. Relay-cropping is one option, where two crops with overlapping growing seasons are grown in the same field. Another option is double cropping, which is when two crops are grown and harvested together. Poly-cropping is when three or more crops are grown together. Finally, inter-cropping is when one or more crops are planted into an existing crop prior to harvest.

Ross Evelsizer, Watershed Planner & GIS Specialist at Northeast Iowa RC&D, explained what Iowa farmers have been trying and how multi-cropping can be done successfully. Iowa farmers are having good luck with relay-cropping. Crop combinations that are being used successfully in Iowa include pairing soybeans with a fall or spring planted small grain. Corn setups have been less successful, but some participants have tried corn with forage mix or cowpeas planted between 60 in. corn rows.

Benefits of multi-cropping for the farmer or landowner include diverse investments, improved soil health, weed suppression, and flexibility. From an environmental standpoint, multi-cropping can reduce soil erosion, reduce disturbances, and increase biodiversity. Evelsizer shared a producer’s relay-crop budget vs. their soybean production budget. Although there was a yield reduction for the soybeans grown in the relay-cropping system, the added revenue from the cereal rye meant that, overall, revenue for the relay setup was higher. The profit for the relay system was also significantly higher than that of the soybeans alone.

To learn more about multi-cropping, watch the full webinar here! You can also connect with Multi-Cropping Iowa on Facebook or Twitter!

Join us next week to learn about the benefits of mowing less. Adam Janke, an Assistant Professor and Extension Wildlife Specialist at Iowa State University, will present a webinar titled “Exploring the Economic, Ecological, and Aesthetic Case for Retiring (Or at Least Down-Sizing) the Mower on Farms and City Lots”.

Hilary Pierce

May 6 Webinar: Multi-Cropping as a Profitable Soil Health Solution

Iowa Learning Farms will host a webinar on Wednesday, May 6 at noon about multi-cropping, and the soil health, environmental, and economic benefits of this practice.

Multi-cropping has many associated benefits. It adds opportunities for producers to increase diversity to crop rotations, creates additional economic opportunities, reduces input costs and weed pressure, mimics nature, and builds soil health. Ross Evelsizer, Watershed Planner & GIS Specialist at Northeast Iowa RC&D, will explain what multi-cropping is, and what producers are doing in Iowa and other parts of the country, during this webinar. Evelsizer will also describe the benefits of multi-cropping for soil health and the environment, as well as the economic implications of the practice.

“I hope people will learn about multi-cropping and think about how it could be worked into what they are doing,” said Evelsizer, who has had seven years of experience in watershed management in northeast Iowa, where he has worked alongside producers and landowners to tackle flooding and water quality issues while maintaining economic productivity. He will also discuss the next steps for Multi-Cropping Iowa.

To participate in the live webinar, shortly before 12:00 pm on May 6:

Click this URL, or type this web address into your internet browser:

    Or, go to and enter meeting ID: 364 284 172 

Or, join from a dial-in phone line:

    Dial: +1 312 626 6799 or +1 646 876 9923

    Meeting ID: 364 284 172

The webinar will also be recorded and archived on the ILF website, so that it can be watched at any time. Archived webinars are available at

A Certified Crop Adviser board-approved continuing education unit (CEU) has been applied for, for those who are able to participate in the live webinar. Information about how to apply to receive the credit (if approved) will be provided at the end of the live webinar.

Hilary Pierce

Iowa’s Water Quality Challenge: Efforts and Progress in Reducing Agricultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss

Iowa Learning Farms will host a webinar on Wednesday, April 29 at noon about the work that is being done in Iowa to reduce losses of agricultural nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the progress that has been made.  

What are the drivers of nutrient loss and water quality impacts in Iowa? To what extent are agricultural conservation practices being used in Iowa to address these concerns? This webinar will explore these questions, describe the wide variety of data sources available, and present findings from the forthcoming Annual Progress Report of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. Laurie Nowatzke, Measurement Coordinator for the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy at Iowa State University, will share how Iowa’s water quality efforts are tracked, the latest findings, and where participants can find additional resources about these efforts.

“There are many programs and initiatives working toward reducing nutrient loss in Iowa. This project uses data to show the current status and outcomes of those efforts, and it aims to provide Iowans with timely information regarding water quality improvement,” said Nowatzke. She works for the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences to evaluate Iowa’s progress in meeting water quality goals, research Iowa farmers’ conservation practice adoption, and track statewide use of water quality improvement practices in agriculture.

To participate in the live webinar, shortly before 12:00 pm on April 29:

Click this URL, or type this web address into your internet browser:

    Or, go to and enter meeting ID: 364 284 172 

Or, join from a dial-in phone line:

    Dial: +1 312 626 6799 or +1 646 876 9923

    Meeting ID: 364 284 172

The webinar will also be recorded and archived on the ILF website, so that it can be watched at any time. Archived webinars are available at

A Certified Crop Adviser board-approved continuing education unit (CEU) has been applied for, for those who are able to participate in the live webinar. Information about how to apply to receive the credit (if approved) will be provided at the end of the live webinar.

Hilary Pierce

April 22 Webinar: Trees, Forests, and Forestry: Benefits to Water Quality and On-Farm Income in Iowa

Iowa Learning Farms will host a webinar on Wednesday, April 22 at noon about the importance of including trees in Iowa’s water quality conversation.

Billy Beck, Assistant Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist at Iowa State University, will discuss the benefits that trees, forests, and forestry provide for both water quality and on-farm income, as well as resources and techniques landowners may utilize to achieve successful on-the-ground projects.

“Trees represent powerful resources that are often underutilized and undervalued by agricultural landowners,” said Beck, whose research and extension programming focuses on the impacts that trees, woodlands, and forests have on water quality and quantity in the Midwest.

This webinar will also present results from the recent “Forests and Water Quality Summit”—including a vision for the role of forestry in Iowa’s water quality efforts.

Don’t miss this webinar!

DATE: Wednesday, April 22, 2020

TIME: 12:00 pm

HOW TO PARTICIPATE: shortly before 12:00 pm on April 22nd:

Click this URL, or type this web address into your internet browser:

    Or, go to and enter meeting ID: 364 284 172 

Or, join from a dial-in phone line:

    Dial: +1 312 626 6799 or +1 646 876 9923

    Meeting ID: 364 284 172

The webinar will also be recorded and archived on the ILF website, so that it can be watched at any time. Archived webinars are available at

A Certified Crop Adviser board-approved continuing education unit (CEU) has been applied for, for those who are able to participate in the live webinar. Information about how to apply to receive the CEU (if approved) will be provided at the end of the live webinar.

Hilary Pierce