On Thursday Rob Stout hosted a bioreactor and monarch field day at his farm near Washington, IA. After dinner, attendees got a chance to check out Iowa Learning Farms’ Conservation Station “On the Edge” trailer to see how saturated buffers and bioreactors look and work underground. After the trailer demonstration we all headed out to Stout’s bioreactor.
Stout had his bioreactor installed in 2014 thanks to cost share funds available through the West Fork Crooked Creek Water Quality and Soil Health Initiative. The bioreactor is 100′ x 30′ with an 8″ tile and drains about 68 acres. Water quality monitoring done at the inlet and outlet of the bioreactor over the last 5 years has shown that the bioreactor has been effective at reducing the nitrate load. Average nitrate removal has been around 90% for August – October, with slightly lower amounts removed (~43 – 83%) in April – July. Check out the installation video here to see how the bioreactor was built! Stout explained that the monitoring has also shown a decrease in the nitrate loads at the inlet of the bioreactor over the 5 years it’s been installed, due to changes he’s made in his nitrogen management (splitting up applications) and likely also related to his use of cover crops.
Attendees also heard from Taylor Shirley, an Iowa State University Graduate Research Assistant in the department of Natural Resources Ecology and Management. Shirley is working on a research project in the Washington area related to pheasants, quail and their habitat. She described the methods used for tracking and monitoring the birds, as well as biomass measurements and vegetation surveys to analyze how the birds are using cover crops and if they are using them for nesting. One unique finding that Shirley mentioned was an Upland Sandpiper nest found in cover crops when they were conducting nest searching.
The evening wrapped up with Holly Shutt, from Pheasants Forever, discussing monarch butterflies and monarch habitat. She explained the monarch lifecycle and the importance of milkweed being available for monarchs since it provides the only food that they can eat during their caterpillar stage. After seeing the lowest recorded monarch populations around 2012-2013, a lot of work has been done to educate the public about the importance of monarch habitat – not just milkweed, but also other flowering plants that they can get nectar from. Although there has been progress made, there is still a lot of work to be done! Stout’s bioreactor area is planted with a pollinator habitat seed mix and Shutt explained some of the basics of seeding and management for those interested in establishing their own pollinator habitat.
If you’re interested in attending an Iowa Learning Farms field day, check out our events page to see if there will be one in your area!