Today’s guest post is by Dr. Dennis Todey, USDA Midwest Climate Hub Director, with timely climate information for crop year 2017.
The spring and early summer in Iowa has been one of large opposing extremes from warm February to cool in early May to near record heat in early June. Precipitation has also been excessive at times, but much less extreme than the wetness of the eastern Corn Belt and dryness of the northern plains so far this spring.
Crop planting progress in Iowa was slightly delayed because of cooler and wetter conditions during planting. The early season warmth slowed and very cool early May conditions took over with soil temperatures falling below the critical 50 F level for development for several days. After early May, dry conditions have been prevalent with most of the state below average precipitation accumulation over the last 30 days into early June. The dryness was beneficial in allowing planting to progress more readily and crops to develop. Rains returned in mid-June easing the dryness somewhat.
Drought in the Northern Plains and near 100 F heat in mid-June has created some concern about drought/heat conditions impacting crop condition. At this point the extreme heat will have only a limited impact on crop yield. The additional heat will be beneficial (to a certain extent) in helping overcome delayed crop development.
A Look Ahead
Looking ahead to the rest of the growing season is a bit difficult because summer precipitation projections are limited. At this point, it doesn’t seem like the hot and dry of early June will stick around for the whole summer. There are some hints of hotter and drier conditions returning in July in Iowa and more of the Midwest. However, current projections would not carry those into August. Both July and August conditions are only slightly better than 50-50 chance of being accurate. Current NOAA outlooks indicate warmer than average temperatures more likely in July and July – August. The 90 day outlooks have a small chance of above average temperatures in far northwest Iowa.
The overall impact in Iowa and the Corn Belt is still developing. The late planting of the eastern Corn Belt will be somewhat overcome by the current warm temperatures. The northwest Corn Belt may see some problems with heat and drought because of the early June developing drought conditions. Iowa is still a work in progress. If the July heat does occur, some yield loss will be likely. Overall yields in the Corn Belt have likely been trimmed because of the variety of problems.
Corn GDD Tracking
For anyone growing corn with questions where they are in GDD development, there is a tool from a recently-completed USDA NIFA-funded project that allows producers to check their crop progress daily based on Growing Degree Day accumulation. The Corn GDD Tool allows a producer to pick their location, corn maturity and planting date. After choosing these the tool creates a plot of GDDs compared to average up to the previous day, a projection for the growing season GDD accumulation to tasseling and freeze date and comparison to selected analog years. This tool is unique in its local data accumulation and projection of GDD accumulation through the year.
A recent article written by Matthew Russell of the Drake University Agricultural Law Center provides some food for thought and discusses how farmers could benefit, both economically and politically, by adopting practices that address climate change. With a continued downturn in commodity prices that began in 2013, farmers might be more open to adding conservation practices to their operation to help their bottom line.
“Farmers are motivated by economic incentives to implement environmental practices. As an example, they recently enrolled nearly 400,000 acres in the USDA Conservation Reserve Program CP-42 which pays farmers to take land out of production and establish habitat for pollinators. Ironically, today we may need to embrace a source of revenue that just eight years ago seemed to many like regulatory overreach.”
Many of the conservation practices already being implemented in the U.S. such as cover crops, no-till, and extended crop rotations can increase soil carbon and address climate change. With higher adoption rates of these practices, and the exploration of new or improved practices designed to increase carbon in soils, farmers stand to profit. So, Russell inquires, will farmers rise to the challenge?
“Now American farmers face a choice. Do we want to explore ways of providing environmental services to fight climate change? Or will we sit back and allow farmers in other parts of the world to develop these agricultural solutions?”
Russell notes that The Paris Agreements and the upcoming 2018 Farm Bill are two opportunities for farmers to unite in support of policies that address climate change while also benefiting the individual farmer, especially as forward-thinking farmers are looking for creative ways to manage on-farm income.
Read the article here.
Today’s guest post is by Dr. Dennis Todey, USDA Midwest Climate Hub Director, with timely climate information as we prepare for crop year 2017.
Planting season is quickly approaching, with field prep work and crop insurance dates for corn only days away. Initial season concerns include the early spring progression from late winter warmth and its impact on alfalfa and soil N levels. The warm and wet conditions allow soil nitrogen to convert to nitrate, which can be easily lost. A late spring nitrate test would help determine if additional nitrogen is needed to meet crop demands.
As crop year 2017 begins, key factors to consider include:
Current Soil Conditions
Background precipitation issues for Iowa differ for northern versus southern Iowa. Heavier rain fell across northern Iowa last fall producing wetter harvest conditions. Some soil wetness issues are likely to carry over into the spring. In contrast chunks of southern Iowa were much drier – not only in the fall but through the summer. National soil moisture models currently support this difference in soil conditions indicating overall wetter north and drier in the far southeast.
While several current storms have produced more rain in southern Iowa, the focus on precipitation should again switch to northern Iowa. The current 30 day April outlook and spring (April-June) outlook from NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center has better chances for above average precipitation in northern Iowa. Combining this rainfall potential with the carry-over wetness from the fall creates the highest risk for wetter planting conditions across the north.
Growing Season Outlook
Looking ahead to the rest of the growing season utilizes a few tools including the status of El Niño conditions and computer-based outlooks. The current El Niño situation is neutral, but hinting toward El Niño conditions by late summer. The switch to El Niño would reduce the risk of a poor growing season, but seems unlikely to start in time to affect the growing season. The progress will be monitored through the season.
Computer outlooks lean toward less chance of dry conditions across most of the state. Thus, the overall drought risk seems fairly small at this point. It should be noted that longer range precipitation outlooks are more difficult to assess.
Temperature outlooks Iowa and the whole Midwest are likely warmer than average. This is based mostly on recent trends of warmth in the summer, which has been driven by warmer overnight temperatures. The risk of excessively high day temperatures seems lower at this point.
Severe Weather Risk
Overall storminess would likely be increased along with more precipitation. But the chances of severe weather currently are similar to climatology at this point.
Estimating crop yield is very important when constructing a farm operating budget. Widening irregularity in harvested grain yield is making this process more challenging. So what is leading to this variability?
A recently released report from a research team at IonE’s Global Landscapes Initiative reveals that historic climate variability accounts for nearly one-third of yield variability in the major food grain crops: corn, rice, wheat and soybeans. They examined newly available global crop yield data from 1979-2008, along with rainfall and temperature data.
Their analysis revealed a variability of 32-39% between years which could be explained by the climate changes. Globally, this is equivalent to about 24 tons of corn, 3.3 tons of rice, 10 tons of wheat, and 2.2 tons of soybeans. Their analysis also revealed that the impact of climate variation is greatest in the world’s most productive regions such as the U.S. Midwest. More than 60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability in the midwestern states.
This relationship has a large impact on the issue of global food security – a great growing season can result in an excellent crop and adequate food supply in the market, but poor growing weather can strain the food grain market.
The connection between climate and yield variability differs around the world. It is strongest in the red areas and weakest in the light green and gray areas.
The research team has plans to expand their study to see what aspects of climate are more important to yield variability. Understanding drivers of crop yield can help producers, farm managers, and policy makers target efforts to stabilize farmer income and food supply while boosting global food supply in a changing world.
The last few posts in this Top 10 Most-Watched Webinars series have focused on specific agriculture and conservation practices. This time there’s a bigger-picture view in store, one that shows just how important it is to start changing practices in the first place. Today’s webinar is “Soil Conservation: The Foundation for Efficient Agriculture,” hosted by Jerry Hatfield, lab director of the National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment.
Here are some take-home points:
1. Food demand is increasing hugely … but land available for food production is decreasing, and agricultural lands everywhere show soil degradation.
2. Climate change isn’t a gradual uniform increase in temperature. It has different consequences in different situations, and a whole lot of those consequences look to be very dire indeed.
3. Resilience to changing climate will require good soils and good soil conservation, including cover crops and no-till.
Watch the webinar here.
– Alex Kirstukas
Iowa Learning Farms farmer partner Fred Abels from Holland, Iowa, had an opinion article in the Des Moines Register in April, but his words are still compelling.
He states in “Iowa View: Climate Change is Not Something To Be Ignored” that there are several things that should be done now to help our environment in the long run; one of which is addressing carbon pollution.
“Currently, there is no limit on the amount of carbon pollution that American power plants can emit, and they are responsible for 40 percent of the U.S.’s carbon footprint.”
Abels also says that by not adapting to climate change it could result in a threat to the world’s food supply.
“The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently released its fifth assessment report (http://ipcc.ch/report/ar5/), which reaffirms that without adaptation, increased temperature, frequency of extreme events and reduced water supply would result in productivity declines in major North American crops and pose a threat to global food security.”
Read the complete article here.
Please consider attending a day-long symposium in Des Moines that will address the current and future challenges and costs that the state of Iowa faces in adapting to the extreme weather fluctuations it has experienced over the last several years.
Adapting to Weather Extremes: the Economic Impact in Iowa will be held on Wednesday, December 11, 2013, at Hy-Vee Hall in Des Moines. It is sponsored by the University of Iowa Public Policy Center (PPC), the Iowa Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR), and the Iowa Water Center.
Iowa Learning Farms team members Drs. Jacqueline Comito and Rick Cruse (Director of the Iowa Water Center) will participate on an agricultural panel with Iowa’s Secretary of Agriculture Bill Northey. The objectives of this day-long symposium are to:
- Better understand the current and future challenges facing Iowa due to the extreme weather.
- Identify some of the leading challenges to key sectors of Iowa’s economy affected by extreme weather, the costs of these impacts and how these sectors are mitigating and adapting to change.
- Facilitate productive discussions among government and business leaders, policy makers and citizens about strategies for mitigating and adapting to extreme weather.
- Generate policy options for adapting to weather extremes in Iowa
State government leaders whose constituents have been economically affected by extreme weather patterns will provide keynote presentations including the Iowa Secretary of Agriculture, the Iowa Director of Natural Resources, the Iowa Secretary of Transportation, the Iowa Insurance Commissioner, and the Iowa Administrator of Homeland Security. Academic background on the topic will be provided by faculty from Iowa State University and the University of Iowa. Legislative and business leaders have also been invited to discuss the implications for future policy. The cost is $25 and includes lunch, $10 for students. For more information about the symposium and to register, please visit: http://ppc.uiowa.edu/forkenbrock/extreme-weather.